Jiuzhaigou was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Natural Heritage Site in 1992 for its lakes and waterfalls, colorful travertine landscape and unique cultural features. It belongs to Category V (protected landscape) in the IUCN system of categorizing protected areas. Diatoms, a large group of eukaryotic (with a membrane-bound nucleus) microalgae and the most common photosynthesizers (they produce their own food in the same way as plants), are the most important group for maintaining the unique travertine ecosystems in aquatic biotopes. Due to their great diversity and the expertise required for their identification, the diatoms of Jiuzhaigou have been rarely and incompletely studied.

Atlas mainly provides a comprehensive diatom collection of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in the text form for diatom identification, with accompanying microscope images and alphabetical Latin names of the species list in the appendix. At the same time, it briefly introduces the basic information about Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve and general facts about diatoms to readers at home and abroad.

This book can be used for reference and study by researchers and students in universities, institutes and other professional institutions, as well as by professionals engaged in lake biology and environmental protection.

This book is an introduction to the basic theory of the finite element method. In addition, it formulates a scheme for finite element computation of elasticity problems and provides typical computer programs for implementing the finite element method. The basic concepts and key techniques involved in finite element computation are presented to enable readers to quickly grasp the knowledge system of the finite element method. Main contents include: (1) introduction of finite element method; (2) fundamentals of elasticity mechanics; (3) weak form of equivalent integration; (4) elements and shape functions; (5) isoparametric element and numerical integration; (6) finite element computation scheme of elasticity problems; (7) solutions of linear algebraic equations; (8) error estimation and adaptive analysis; (9) programs of finite element method. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students majoring in engineering mechanics, civil engineering, and mining engineering. It provides also reference for researchers in related fields. To facilitate teaching and learning, this book provides selected homework exercises and programming projects with well-designed solutions. Online course and the source code of the related programs are also available.

]]>This book addresses both the basic and applied aspects of the finite iterative algorithm, CGLS iterative algorithm, and explicit algorithm to some linear matrix equations. The author presents the latest results in three parts: (1) We consider the finite iterative algorithm to the coupled transpose matrix equations and the coupled operator matrix equations with sub-matrix constrained. These two finite iterative algorithms are closely related and progressive. (2) We present MCGLS iterative algorithm for studying least squares problems to the generalized Sylvester-conjugate matrix equation, the generalized Sylvester-conjugate transpose matrix equation, and the coupled linear operator systems, respectively. (3) Compared with the previous two parts, we consider here the explicit solution to some linear matrix equations, which are the nonhomogeneous Yakubovich matrix equation, the nonhomogeneous Yakubovich transpose matrix equation, and the generalized Sylvester matrix equation, respectively. This book is intended for students, researchers, and professionals in the field of numerical algebra, linear matrix equations, nonlinear matrix equations, and control theory.

]]>One major task of genetic studies is to construct the genetic map through linkage analysis, and then locate the genetic loci of important traits on the constructed linkage maps, identify favorable alleles which are of values to human beings, and investigate their biochemical pathways from genotype to phenotype.

This book presents the linkage analysis and gene mapping methodologies, which are applicable to self-pollinated, cross-pollinated, and asexual propagated species, and genetic populations derived from two homozygous parents, two heterozygous parents, and multiple homozygous parents. Chapter 1 in this book begins with genetic mating designs and various types of genetic populations, followed by the structure of commonly used populations and analysis methods of phenotypic data. In chapters 2 and 3, estimation of recombination frequency and construction of linkage map are introduced for twenty bi-parental populations. Chapter 4 deals with two classical gene mapping methods, where no background control is considered, while chapters 5 and 6 describe the inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) with background control. Chapter 7 is focused on populations derived from two heterozygous parents, which can be two individuals in a random mating population, two clonal cultivars, or two single crosses from four homozygous inbred lines. Chapter 8 provides knowledge on the pure-line progeny populations derived from four to eight homozygous parents. The last two chapters covers populations, methods and commonly asked questions in genetic mapping which cannot be included previously.

This book is intended for readers working on plant and animal genetics, population and quantitative genetics, and plant and animal breeding.

Mosses are one of the most ancient terrestrial plants. Their small size and rich species have increased the difficulty in classification and thus there are still many taxonomic issues to be solved. The moss genus Ulota provides a good example in this regard. Engaged in the world taxonomic revision of this epiphytic moss for many years, the authors present the main conclusions of their research in this book. It not only introduces the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Ulota, but also provides detailed and comprehensive information on the 50 species confirmed in this study, illustrated and accompanied by beautiful color photos, SEM images and distribution maps. This book brings together the latest findings of Ulota and useful reference for species classification for professionals and amateurs.

]]>The Macroscopic Identification Atlas of Endangered Woods Common in Trade was edited by the Wildlife Conservation Department of China National Forestry and Grassland Adminis tration (NFGA), the CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) Management Authority of China and the Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, with the support of the International Association of Wood Anat omists (IAWA) and the Research Group 5.16.00 of the International Union of Forest Research Organization (IUFRO). In the atlas, a total of twenty-six tree species listed in the CITES Appendices, were included. The taxonomy, geographic distribution, morphological characteristics of trees, wood description, identification characteristics of wood, type of wood products, and conservation class of each species is reviewed. Moreover, key identification features, in comparison with the similar (easy to be confused or look-alike) species, are indicated with images of solid wood and at low magnification under the stereomicroscope. The atlas is portable and suitable for on-site inspection and law enforcement training. It will provide an important reference for law enforcement and customs of China, and strengthen management of imports and exports of endangered tree species. Meanwhile, the atlas will assist the popularization of wood science for the public.

]]>As everyone can see every day, many objects or materials change their appearance when they get wet. Most of the time, the object becomes more translucent, its color darker and more chromatic. Beyond these general trends, is it possible to predict these changes in appearance for a given type of surface, and for a given humidity level? This is the question studied in this book, by drawing up a first inventory of available knowledge and ongoing research in multiple fields of application: in remote sensing, to correctly identify surfaces and estimate moisture content; in public lighting, to improve visibility on wet roads; in computer graphics, to render wet surfaces in a more realistic way… There is no universal model to describe the changes in spectral, angular and spatial responses of a wetted surface. The mechanisms of light scattering are not affected in the same way according to whether the material is porous, fibrous, powdery, and can be filled by water, or impermeable and can be covered by a water layer. In some applications where the infrared domain is of interest, the strong absorptance of water is also to be considered. This book was initiated by the GDR Appamat, a grouping of research focused on material appearance created in 2019 by the French national center for scientific research (CNRS). In 9 chapters, 26 specialists from various disciplines present different approaches that open perspectives on this field of research. Hopefully, students, engineers, and researchers will be inspired by these ideas to propose future developments.]]>

Heterocyclic chemistry is one of the largest branches of chemistry. Heterocycles play major roles in important fields such as medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistries, agrochemicals or polymers. A good understanding of the comparative reactivity of simple five- and six-membered rings, i.e. pyrrole vs pyridine type rings, makes it possible to approach or predict the reactivity of more complex heterocycles.

This book is a compilation of exercises, mostly adapted from published works. For more clarity we have chosen to limit ourselves to nitrogen containing heterocycles. The book is mainly aimed to Master students, but it will also be of interest for anyone who wants to train in this important field of synthetic chemistry. The book is organized in five sections. In the first chapter, typical syntheses along with metal catalyzed pathways are presented. The two following chapters are devoted to the chemical reactivity of the six-membered (pyridine, quinoline, azines) and five-membered rings (pyrrole, indole, azoles). In these two chapters, the exercises of increasing difficulties focus on the main types of reactions, including electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitutions, N-alkylation and N-arylation, lithiation and other organometallic reactions, and metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. In the fourth chapter, the principles discussed in the previous chapters will be applied to the chemistry of complex polycyclic heterocycles containing both five and six membered rings (pyrrolyl-pyridine, aza-indole, indolizine, purine).

The exercise solutions are commented in a separate chapter at the end of the book. Basic notions of nomenclature are given in a short appendix, allowing students to find out a ring structure from its name.

]]>Here is the ideal book to grasp the basic concepts of spin-dependent electron transport and to develop a deep physical understanding of the subject. A careful selection of key notions provides a concise and effective framework. Learning how to use these notions is successfully supported by ten extended exercises with complete solutions. Common terms and specialist jargon are clearly explained, and the way in which subtleties complicate phenomena, without altering their physical basis, is pedagogically addressed. The rigorous and harmonised system of notation and units adopted throughout the book allows the reader to navigate easily between concepts and to gain a broad view of the subject. Based on a series of lectures given to MSc and PhD students, this book will appeal to a wide range of readers, from students at the graduate level to researchers and engineers.

]]>This book presents the research and applications carried out by the Vegetation Remote Sensing & Pest and Disease Application Research Team of Aerospace Information Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences (AIR-CAS) in the field of pest and disease monitoring and forecasting during the past ten years. Organized in five parts, this work covers crop pest and disease remote sensing monitoring and forecasting mechanisms, algorithms, models, system development and applications. The first part introduces the importance and current research status of crop pest and disease monitoring and forecasting. From the second to the fourth parts, the authors engage readers with various subjects related to non-imaging and imaging remote sensing monitoring, remote sensing forecasting. The construction and application of crop pest and disease remote sensing monitoring and forecasting system are described in the last part. This book can be used as a reference book in the areas of agricultural information technology, 3S technology application, agricultural plant protection, agrometeorology and agricultural extension.Being internationally prestigious experts and young scientists, the authors provide an essential view of their important work supported by multiple major research funding programs (National Key R&D Program of China, Newton-UK-China Agri-centers, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing Nova Program of Science and Technology, National special support program for high-level personnel, Ten-thousand TalentsProgram, Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS, Hainan Provincial High level talent Program of Basic and Applied Basic Research Plan, etc.).

]]>Overview of Wine in China is the first comprehensive and systematic introduction of Chinese wine in the world. The book covers the history of Chinese wine, the development of wine regions, grape varieties, cultivation and management, winemaking, wine tasting, wine services, Chinese wine education and scientific research, laws and regulations, and other aspects.

The book also gives a detailed introduction to the distribution of Wine regions in China, the general situation of the industry, the terrain, climate,soil of the wine regions, the representative wineries, and the characteristics of their wine. Fluent text, beautiful pictures, and innovative work not only make this book of high academic and collection value but also make it a rare guide to Chinese wine consumption and travel.

Dr. Hua LI and Dr. Hua WANG, leading the team of College of Enology of NorthwestA&F University in China, have long been engaged in grape and wine teaching and research, technology promotion, cultural communication, etc. The research results of the College of Enology have laid the theoretical foundation for the development of the grape and wine industry in China, and the trained talents have become the technical support and backbone of the development of the grape and wine industry in China.

]]>The titanium industry is developing at a fantastic speed in China, which is promoted by the increasing demand for high-quality titanium resources. Thus, our research group led by Prof. Guo CHEN in Yunnan Minzu University is devoted to developing microwave heating applications in the production chain of titanium, and the corresponding results are summarized in this book.This book is divided into six chapters which initially look at the response and amenability of titanium-based elements tomicrowave power. Upon establishing its potential usefulness in titanium processing, the book assesses and introduces the various effects of microwave for different titanium related processes, including preweakening, drying, carbothermic reduction, leaching and roasting. A wide variety of analysis tools to determine the effects of microwave on these processes were utilized to support and explain the results. These include DSC, Raman, FTIR, SEM, EDAX. Finally, life cycle analysis was used to evaluate and to optimize microwave heating devices to provide information for further development of this process in the titanium industry. We hope this compilation can provide researchers and professionals working in the general minerals processing field the benefits of the microwave technique.

]]>The French version of this book was awarded a Special Mention by the jury of the 35th 'Prix Roberval', in the category 'Academic books'.

Physicists know how to produce gases at a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero. The cooling methods apply not only to atoms but also to ions and molecules. This field of research has three times been awarded the Nobel Prize. The field experienced remarkable growth when experimentalists learned how to vary at will the interactions between particles, trapping them with optical tweezers or in optical gratings with adjustable geometry. Artificial crystals made of atoms or molecules can be built to simulate the structure of matter and elucidate some of its magnetic properties, hopefully contributing to the understanding of high-temperature superconductivity. The phenomenon of quantum entanglement is the basis for new devices for the storage and transmission of quantum information. Spectacular progress is constantly being made in metrology. For example, ultra-cold atom or ion clocks measure time to better than one second over the lifetime of the Universe. New types of industrial gravimeters and gyroscopes are improving the sensitivity of seismology and navigation in space. In addition, the extreme precision of the measurements allows tests of the fundamental laws of physics, such as quantum electrodynamics, Lorentz invariance or possible variations of the fundamental constants. The field of ultra-cold particles has now reached the stage where it provides insights in the fields of condensed matter, chemistry and even cosmology.

Preface by Alain Aspect - Nobel Prize in Physics / 2022.

]]>This book contains a set of solved problems on the thermodynamics of phase transformations, diffusion and kinetics in alloys. These problems, preceded by a reminder of the course, are completed by answers detailing each stage of the calculations. The topics covered in the book (precipitation, ordering, segregation on crystalline defects, growth of a thin film, oxidation, creep, doping of semiconductors, etc.) are essential for the design of materials and the optimisation of heat treatments and properties, whether for structural materials (steels, Ni, Al, Cu, Ti-based alloys, etc.) or functional materials (semiconductors, alloys and magnetic multilayers, etc.). They often lead to an industrial problem (aeronautics, nuclear power plants, microelectronics, etc.). This book is intended for teachers and students of bachelor’s and master’s degrees, but also for engineering students, PhD students and researchers.

]]>A true practical guide, this book brings together all elements necessary for the practice of PID control in industries. The first part presents the different characteristics of the PID controller: continuous, digital, architectures, realization algorithms implementation. The second part describes different adjustment methods that are practiced in the industry, all illustrated with numerous response curves to show their specificities. We will also find elements concerning simple methods, often graphic, to identify the usual processes to be controlled, without identification software. The book is intended to be practical with many summary tables, for immediate use of knowledge with as few calculations as possible. This book is aimed at students wishing to learn the practice of PID control, as well as teachers, engineers and technicians of the profession.

]]>Blue Book on China’s Scientific Journal Development (2021) has the theme of “academic publishing in the open scienceenvironment”. Based on the major Chinese and international databases and first-hand official data, this book uses scientific methods to analyze the existing problems and to summarize the development process of China’s scientific journals. In thisbook, the authors introduce and analyze the general situation of China’s scientific and technological journals and researcharticles, present their overall status in the form of statistical key figures, and study the characteristics of the progress ofopen science, open science platform and open publishing progress. This work has thus drawn a picture of the transformation of international academic publishing in the open science environment. This Blue Book discusses the development trend of Chinese science journals in the open science environment, so as to provide reference for the founding and enhancement of the world-class scientific and technological journals in China.

]]>Material appearance has emerged as a scientific topic in its own right rather recently and an increasing number of professionals concerned by this topic, belonging to various application areas, are entering this vast field. Thanks to the rise of imaging systems and visual rendering software, and the rapid development of accessible devices for color and gloss analysis, non-expert people can now check, for example, the compliance of a product with an appearance standard, or create a realistic virtual prototype. Most of these tools are based on optical concepts which are generally not in the forefront at an elementary level usage, but which are necessary for a consistent analysis of the specific cases studied. The objective of this book is precisely to introduce the fundamental notions of optics allowing the readers to understand the radiometric quantities measured with common devices, to learn how to analyze them, and to review some classical optics-based predictive models for various types of materials and structures. We have chosen to illustrate the theoretical notions with numerous examples and corrected exercises, easily transposable to a variety of materials: glass plates, polymer films, pigment layers, metals, papers and printed surfaces, coatings, etc. The book targets an audience of students, engineers and researchers who have a scientific background but not necessarily versed in optics, who are seeking sound bases in order to characterize the appearance of products and better comprehend the more advanced research currently being conducted in this area.

]]>This book introduces complete and systematic theories of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems and their applications in partial differential equations, especially in the models of fluid mechanics. It is based on the first author’s lecture “Infinite dimensional dynamical systems on nonlinear autonomous systems” given to graduate students in Donghua University since 2004. This book presents recent results that have been carried out by the authors on autonomous nonlinear evolutionar yequations arising from physics, fluid mechanics and material science such as the Navier–Stokes equations, Navier–Stokes–Voight systems, the nonlinear thermoviscoelastic system, etc.

]]>Linear algebra is a core course for science and engineering students in colleges and universities. It is one of the foundations of modern mathematics and has extensive and profound applications in physics, computer science, engineering, economics, etc. This book aims to help readers acquire the basic knowledge of linear algebra and lay the ground for further study of mathematics courses. It is intended for first-year undergraduate students in engineering, science, and other areas related to mathematics. It is also suitable for self-study. This book is organized into eight chapters and the main contents include linear equations, basic operations of matrices, determinants, vector spaces, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, linear transformations, etc. In the eighth and last chapter, the authors draw on key concepts presented in the previous chapters in the book to give an elementary proof of the recently proposed Böttcher-Wenzel conjecture. In addition, the appendix provides a preliminary discussion of the independence of the axioms of vector spaces. The book provides simple exercises for tutorials and more challenging exercises for student practice.

]]>Abstract algebra is an essential tool in algebra, number theory, geometry, topology, and, to a lesser extent, analysis. It is therefore a core requirement for all mathematics majors. Outside of mathematics, abstract algebra also has many applications in cryptography, coding theory, quantum chemistry, and physics.This book is intended as a textbook for a one-term senior undergraduate or gradate course in abstract algebra to prepare students for further readings on relevant subjects such as Group Theory and Galois Theory. Abstract algebra being the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures such as groups, rings, fields, and modules, we will primarily study groups, rings, and fields in this book. The authors invite readers to experience the beauty of mathematics by studying Abstract algebra which offers not only opportunities to work on complex concepts and to develop one’s abstract reasoning abilities, but also a preliminary understanding of what it is like to do research in mathematics.Libin LI is professor at School of Mathematics, Yangzhou University in China. His research interests include Representation theory in Hopf algebras and Tensor category, Decoding theory and Ring theory, Weyl algebras and isomorphism problems, etc.

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