Seafloor topography data are essential for a multitude of Earth science studies. Among various seafloor mapping technologies, gravity inversion is the dominant approach to achieve rapid global coverage at low resolution and to obtain the bathymetry at places covered by ice shelves, icebergs, or ice mélange. The present book systematically discusses the relationship between topography and gravity, establishes methods of inferring seafloor topography from gravity, and gives practical examples showing seafloor topography estimation from airborne gravities measured in polar expedition missions.

]]>This book introduces a monograph deconstructing morphological model of river fish communities. It provides a new method and develops morphological modeling, software analysis, and applications for studies of fish community niches. Over long-term evolution, fish interactions with their environment can result in the formation of new species, the exploitation of various ecological niches, and the development of species communities. Although the organisms in the ancient fish can be recognized through their fossils, the niche composition of fish communities 200 years ago remains unknown. The lack of data on the evolution of ecosystem structure and function become an obstacle in the studies of ecology. The purpose of this book is to establish a systematic method for determining niches based on species morphology and the morphological characters of fish communities, as well as to discuss the niche composition of community species through historical records of “qualitative” species. This book attempts to provide a method to clarify community species structure in a given ecosystem and to establish a standard for evaluating ecosystem changes based on community species structure. This book provides a community structure reference system for river ecosystem assessment and restoration based on natural attributes. Using fish morphological data, we established a model for fish community studies based on morphological characters. This book also examines the relationships between fish species in communities from the perspective of ecological niches, and it attempts to establish a fish community research tool for the ecological restoration of rivers.

]]>Based on the analysis of factors influencing fluid infiltration in porous media, this book systematically summarizes the characteristics and expressions of low-velocity nonlinear flow and high-velocity nonlinear flow infiltration in porous media and provides a set of evaluation methods. Using the exponential formula, the starting pressure gradient formula, and the binomial equation of motion, the authors present a detailed comparison and analysis of the production, pressure, and dimensionless background pressure of the nonlinear flow and Darcy linear flow for steady and unsteady flow. In addition, based on the equation of motion of the starting pressure gradient, a mathematical model of the one-, two-, and three-medium nonlinear seepage flow is established, and approximate analytical solutions are given while the graph of the corresponding well test curve is drawn. Finally, based on the mathematical model of the well test established from the exponential equation of the high-velocity nonlinear flow motion, the atypical well test curve and the relational surface of the time- and space-varying infiltration index are obtained. The authors also discuss the relationship between reservoir and fluid properties and the nonlinear flow test curve. This book is intended to serve as a reference for technical personnel, researchers, teachers, and students involved in oil and gas development. Its research contents provide a theoretical basis for the identification of water flow dominant channels in the long-term water injection development of high-water-cut oilfields, profile control and water shut-off, productivity evaluation of carbonate reservoirs and formation parameters.

]]>The fundamental solutions (FS) satisfy the governing equations in a solution domain S, and then the numerical solutions can be found from the exterior and the interior boundary conditions on ?S. The resource nodes of FS are chosen outside S, distinctly from the case of the boundary element method (BEM). This method is called the method of fundamental solutions (MFS), which originated from Kupradze in 1963. The Laplace and the Helmholtz equations are studied in detail, and biharmonic equations and the Cauchy-Navier equation of linear elastostatics are also discussed. Moreover, better choices of source nodes are explored. The simplicity of numerical algorithms and high accuracy of numerical solutions are two remarkable advantages of the MFS. However, the ill-conditioning of the MFS is notorious, and the condition number (Cond) grows exponentially via the number of the unknowns used. In this book, the numerical algorithms are introduced and their characteristics are addressed. The main efforts are made to establish the theoretical analysis in errors and stability. The strict analysis (as well as choices of source nodes) in this book has provided the solid theoretical basis of the MFS, to grant it to become an effective and competent numerical method for partial differential equations (PDE). Based on some of our works published as journal papers, this book presents essential and important elements of the MFS. It is intended for researchers, graduated students, university students, computational experts, mathematicians and engineers.]]>

Pressured apparatuses (such as pressure vessels) are widely used in many fields as key equipment including chemical, petrochemical, mechanical, weaponry, aviation, aerospace, energy, material, food, metallurgical, pharmaceutical and construction industries, etc. Autofrettage technology is an effective measure to improve the safety and the load-bearing capability of pressured apparatuses. This book comprehensively and systematically studies autofrettage technology of pressured apparatuses to introduce many valued phenomena and relevant laws. New theories of autofrettage technology are established, and new autofrettage technologies are proposed in this book. Authors present a large number of formulas, figures and application examples to facilitate the understanding and application of the new theories and new technologies. This book is characterized by strict demonstration and close combination with practical application. It serves as a reference book for analysis and design of pressured apparatuses which are widely used in many industries, and provides learning and teaching materials for students, teachers and engineers.

]]>With the fast development of big data and artificial intelligence, a natural question is how do we analyze data more efficiently? One of the efficient ways is to use optimization. What is optimization? Optimization exists everywhere. People optimize. As long as you have choices, you do optimization. Optimization is the key of operations research. This book introduces the basic definitions and theory about numerical optimization, including optimality conditions for unconstrained and constrained optimization, as well as algorithms for unconstrained and constrained problems. Moreover, it also includes the nonsmooth Newton’s method, which plays an important role in large-scale numerical optimization. Finally, based on the author’s research experiences, several latest applications about optimization are introduced, including optimization algorithms for hypergraph matching, support vector machine and bilevel optimization approach for hyperparameter selection in machine learning. With these optimization tools, one can deal with data more efficiently.]]>

This book reports on the state-of-the-art in terms of dosimetric, ionizing radiation metrology and radiation protection through exercises related to practical applications. For each problem, the book provides resolutions by means of analytical and semi-empirical formulas stemming from nuclear physics theory and the latest research contributions. For most applications (cavity theory, absorbed dose calculation for protons, quantities and dimensioning of X-ray generators…) the most recent data and calculation methods are part of the tools used. Moreover, in most applications/problems discussed, an inter-comparison with the numerical results obtained with a Monte-Carlo code commonly in worldwide use, MCNP, is presented. This code allows providing “actual” values in order to test the accuracy of the whole of analytical or semi-empirical results. For each case study, the numerical model is discussed, the input file is fully provided, and its structure is detailed. Some complex geometries involved in the modeled radiological scenes as well as the features used to generate, transport and track particles are described. On another note, emphasis is placed on the raw MCNP results normalization and on variance reduction techniques employed to improve or enable the convergence of statistical estimators toward the end result.

This book is aimed at an audience having a solid background in the addressed themes and is recommended for students from Physics Bachelor’s degree. It can provide theoretical and technical information to engineers carrying out calculations and to graduate students performing their research work as well. The book is intended to be instructive and each problem is treated independently. The reader can therefore study the applications of interest in the desired order.

]]>Chinese Museum Today features a selection of 22 translated articles from three highly influential academic journals in the Chinese museum sector, namely Chinese Museum, Museum, and Southeast Culture, presenting theoretical research, practical exploration, and future vision of Chinese museums. By introducing this book, the Chinese Museums Association (CMA) hopes that readers all around world will continue to be interested in the history and development of Chinese museums. Through effective interaction and communication, museums in China will become cultural institutions at the service of global sustainability and people’s well-being.

]]>The book introduces the existence, uniqueness, regularity and the long time behavior of solutions with respect to space and time, and the explosion phenomenon for some evolution equations, including the KdV equation, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the Zakharov equations, the Landau-Lifshitz equations, the Boussinesq equation, the Navier-Stokes equations and the Newton-Boussinesq equations etc., as well as the basic concepts and research methods of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems. This book presents fundamental elements and important advances in nonlinear evolution equations. It is intended for senior university students, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and young teachers to acquire a basic understanding of this field, while providing a reference for experienced researchers and teachers in natural sciences and engineering technology to broaden their knowledge.

]]>This book in two volumes provides an overview of continuous, discrete and functional optimization techniques. This first volume is devoted to continuous optimization, which deals with problems with real variables, without or with constraints. After a reminder of the optimality conditions and their geometrical interpretation, the topics covered are:-gradient-free algorithms that can be applied to any type of function;-unconstrained algorithms based on Newton-type descent methods;-algorithms with constraints: penalization, primal, dual and primal-dual methods;-linear programming with the simplex method and interior point methods. The emphasis is on understanding the principles rather than on mathematical rigor. Each concept or algorithm is accompanied by a detailed example to help you grasp the main ideas. This book is the result of 30 years of experience and is intended for students, researchers and engineers wishing to acquire a general knowledge in the field of optimization.

]]>This book is the English translation of «Techniques d'optimisation tomes 1 et 2» which was part of the final selection of «Prix Roberval 2023» in the «Higher Education» category.

This book in two volumes provides an overview of continuous, discrete and functional optimization techniques. This second volume is devoted to discrete optimization (problems with integer variables) and functional optimization (problems where the unknown is a function). The topics covered are: • mixed linear programming: cutting methods and tree methods; • combinatorial optimization based on graphs: path, flow, assignment problems ... ; • the computation of variations based on Euler-Lagrange conditions and their extensions; • optimal control based on the Pontryaguin maximum principle and its extensions; • numerical methods: differential equations, direct and indirect methods. The emphasis is on understanding the principles rather than on mathematical rigor. Each concept or algorithm is accompanied by a detailed example to help you grasp the main ideas. This book is the result of 30 years of experience and is intended for students, researchers and engineers wishing to acquire a general knowledge in the field of optimization.

]]>This book is the English translation of «Techniques d'optimisation tomes 1 et 2» which was part of the final selection of «Prix Roberval 2023» in the «Higher Education» category.

Jiuzhaigou was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Natural Heritage Site in 1992 for its lakes and waterfalls, colorful travertine landscape and unique cultural features. It belongs to Category V (protected landscape) in the IUCN system of categorizing protected areas. Diatoms, a large group of eukaryotic (with a membrane-bound nucleus) microalgae and the most common photosynthesizers (they produce their own food in the same way as plants), are the most important group for maintaining the unique travertine ecosystems in aquatic biotopes. Due to their great diversity and the expertise required for their identification, the diatoms of Jiuzhaigou have been rarely and incompletely studied.

Atlas mainly provides a comprehensive diatom collection of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in the text form for diatom identification, with accompanying microscope images and alphabetical Latin names of the species list in the appendix. At the same time, it briefly introduces the basic information about Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve and general facts about diatoms to readers at home and abroad.

This book can be used for reference and study by researchers and students in universities, institutes and other professional institutions, as well as by professionals engaged in lake biology and environmental protection.

This book is an introduction to the basic theory of the finite element method. In addition, it formulates a scheme for finite element computation of elasticity problems and provides typical computer programs for implementing the finite element method. The basic concepts and key techniques involved in finite element computation are presented to enable readers to quickly grasp the knowledge system of the finite element method. Main contents include: (1) introduction of finite element method; (2) fundamentals of elasticity mechanics; (3) weak form of equivalent integration; (4) elements and shape functions; (5) isoparametric element and numerical integration; (6) finite element computation scheme of elasticity problems; (7) solutions of linear algebraic equations; (8) error estimation and adaptive analysis; (9) programs of finite element method. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students majoring in engineering mechanics, civil engineering, and mining engineering. It provides also reference for researchers in related fields. To facilitate teaching and learning, this book provides selected homework exercises and programming projects with well-designed solutions. Online course and the source code of the related programs are also available.

]]>This book addresses both the basic and applied aspects of the finite iterative algorithm, CGLS iterative algorithm, and explicit algorithm to some linear matrix equations. The author presents the latest results in three parts: (1) We consider the finite iterative algorithm to the coupled transpose matrix equations and the coupled operator matrix equations with sub-matrix constrained. These two finite iterative algorithms are closely related and progressive. (2) We present MCGLS iterative algorithm for studying least squares problems to the generalized Sylvester-conjugate matrix equation, the generalized Sylvester-conjugate transpose matrix equation, and the coupled linear operator systems, respectively. (3) Compared with the previous two parts, we consider here the explicit solution to some linear matrix equations, which are the nonhomogeneous Yakubovich matrix equation, the nonhomogeneous Yakubovich transpose matrix equation, and the generalized Sylvester matrix equation, respectively. This book is intended for students, researchers, and professionals in the field of numerical algebra, linear matrix equations, nonlinear matrix equations, and control theory.

]]>One major task of genetic studies is to construct the genetic map through linkage analysis, and then locate the genetic loci of important traits on the constructed linkage maps, identify favorable alleles which are of values to human beings, and investigate their biochemical pathways from genotype to phenotype.

This book presents the linkage analysis and gene mapping methodologies, which are applicable to self-pollinated, cross-pollinated, and asexual propagated species, and genetic populations derived from two homozygous parents, two heterozygous parents, and multiple homozygous parents. Chapter 1 in this book begins with genetic mating designs and various types of genetic populations, followed by the structure of commonly used populations and analysis methods of phenotypic data. In chapters 2 and 3, estimation of recombination frequency and construction of linkage map are introduced for twenty bi-parental populations. Chapter 4 deals with two classical gene mapping methods, where no background control is considered, while chapters 5 and 6 describe the inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) with background control. Chapter 7 is focused on populations derived from two heterozygous parents, which can be two individuals in a random mating population, two clonal cultivars, or two single crosses from four homozygous inbred lines. Chapter 8 provides knowledge on the pure-line progeny populations derived from four to eight homozygous parents. The last two chapters covers populations, methods and commonly asked questions in genetic mapping which cannot be included previously.

This book is intended for readers working on plant and animal genetics, population and quantitative genetics, and plant and animal breeding.

Mosses are one of the most ancient terrestrial plants. Their small size and rich species have increased the difficulty in classification and thus there are still many taxonomic issues to be solved. The moss genus Ulota provides a good example in this regard. Engaged in the world taxonomic revision of this epiphytic moss for many years, the authors present the main conclusions of their research in this book. It not only introduces the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Ulota, but also provides detailed and comprehensive information on the 50 species confirmed in this study, illustrated and accompanied by beautiful color photos, SEM images and distribution maps. This book brings together the latest findings of Ulota and useful reference for species classification for professionals and amateurs.

]]>The Macroscopic Identification Atlas of Endangered Woods Common in Trade was edited by the Wildlife Conservation Department of China National Forestry and Grassland Adminis tration (NFGA), the CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) Management Authority of China and the Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, with the support of the International Association of Wood Anat omists (IAWA) and the Research Group 5.16.00 of the International Union of Forest Research Organization (IUFRO). In the atlas, a total of twenty-six tree species listed in the CITES Appendices, were included. The taxonomy, geographic distribution, morphological characteristics of trees, wood description, identification characteristics of wood, type of wood products, and conservation class of each species is reviewed. Moreover, key identification features, in comparison with the similar (easy to be confused or look-alike) species, are indicated with images of solid wood and at low magnification under the stereomicroscope. The atlas is portable and suitable for on-site inspection and law enforcement training. It will provide an important reference for law enforcement and customs of China, and strengthen management of imports and exports of endangered tree species. Meanwhile, the atlas will assist the popularization of wood science for the public.

]]>As everyone can see every day, many objects or materials change their appearance when they get wet. Most of the time, the object becomes more translucent, its color darker and more chromatic. Beyond these general trends, is it possible to predict these changes in appearance for a given type of surface, and for a given humidity level? This is the question studied in this book, by drawing up a first inventory of available knowledge and ongoing research in multiple fields of application: in remote sensing, to correctly identify surfaces and estimate moisture content; in public lighting, to improve visibility on wet roads; in computer graphics, to render wet surfaces in a more realistic way… There is no universal model to describe the changes in spectral, angular and spatial responses of a wetted surface. The mechanisms of light scattering are not affected in the same way according to whether the material is porous, fibrous, powdery, and can be filled by water, or impermeable and can be covered by a water layer. In some applications where the infrared domain is of interest, the strong absorptance of water is also to be considered. This book was initiated by the GDR Appamat, a grouping of research focused on material appearance created in 2019 by the French national center for scientific research (CNRS). In 9 chapters, 26 specialists from various disciplines present different approaches that open perspectives on this field of research. Hopefully, students, engineers, and researchers will be inspired by these ideas to propose future developments.]]>

Heterocyclic chemistry is one of the largest branches of chemistry. Heterocycles play major roles in important fields such as medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistries, agrochemicals or polymers. A good understanding of the comparative reactivity of simple five- and six-membered rings, i.e. pyrrole vs pyridine type rings, makes it possible to approach or predict the reactivity of more complex heterocycles.

This book is a compilation of exercises, mostly adapted from published works. For more clarity we have chosen to limit ourselves to nitrogen containing heterocycles. The book is mainly aimed to Master students, but it will also be of interest for anyone who wants to train in this important field of synthetic chemistry. The book is organized in five sections. In the first chapter, typical syntheses along with metal catalyzed pathways are presented. The two following chapters are devoted to the chemical reactivity of the six-membered (pyridine, quinoline, azines) and five-membered rings (pyrrole, indole, azoles). In these two chapters, the exercises of increasing difficulties focus on the main types of reactions, including electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitutions, N-alkylation and N-arylation, lithiation and other organometallic reactions, and metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. In the fourth chapter, the principles discussed in the previous chapters will be applied to the chemistry of complex polycyclic heterocycles containing both five and six membered rings (pyrrolyl-pyridine, aza-indole, indolizine, purine).

The exercise solutions are commented in a separate chapter at the end of the book. Basic notions of nomenclature are given in a short appendix, allowing students to find out a ring structure from its name.

]]>Here is the ideal book to grasp the basic concepts of spin-dependent electron transport and to develop a deep physical understanding of the subject. A careful selection of key notions provides a concise and effective framework. Learning how to use these notions is successfully supported by ten extended exercises with complete solutions. Common terms and specialist jargon are clearly explained, and the way in which subtleties complicate phenomena, without altering their physical basis, is pedagogically addressed. The rigorous and harmonised system of notation and units adopted throughout the book allows the reader to navigate easily between concepts and to gain a broad view of the subject. Based on a series of lectures given to MSc and PhD students, this book will appeal to a wide range of readers, from students at the graduate level to researchers and engineers.

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